Big Data – Introduction, Classifications, And Attributes

The facts and figures that help in the investigation are data. In other words, we can define data as the quantities on which we perform certain operations and store them. Data are passed to the magnetic, optical, or mechanical recording devices in the conformation of electrical signals. Now, talking about Big Data, it is a collection of huge amounts of data where the amount of data increases continually. This is the sole reason why obsolete data management tools cannot store and supervise bulky data. Individuals, organizations, and the Government, all use big data. Some of the examples of big data are seen in route planning, congestion management, and intelligent support. 

Types of Big Data

Big Data is primarily classified into three categories; Structured, Unstructured, and Semi-Structured. Let us discuss it in brief.


We can keep, ingress, and operate data of this category in a particular format. In the present context, the advancement of technology has come up with several breakthroughs that assist us to manage such data.


Unlike the previous type, here, the forms of data are unspecified. However, the unstructured type data packs a lot of difficulties in processing. Likewise, a representative example of such data is a text file. It contains Heterogeneous data. Similarly, another pragmatic example is the outcome from Google search engine. 


It contains both forms of data. They are structured in arrangement but are not described in reality. Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a traditional example of such a data type. Besides, we can also consider an XML file to fall in this category of data. 

Attributes of Big Data

We can represent Big Data by four ‘V’s and they are as follows:

  • Volume
  • Variety
  • Velocity
  • Variability
  1. Volume – We already know that the predominant element that makes up Big Data is volume. The magnitude of Big Data plays a vital role in determining the value of data. Besides, it also finds out if a data is big or not.
  2. Variety – Another important characteristic of Big Data is its variety. It refers to the starting point and nature of heterogeneous data. A few years back, spreadsheets and databases were the solitary starting point of data. However, at this moment in time, data exists in numerous forms. 
  3. Velocity – It determines the speed of production of data. It refers to the speed at which data moves from sources like cellphones, social media, and networks. 
  4. Variability – Likewise, variability is the unpredictability shown by data. In other words, it obstructs the process of efficient data management. 

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Sushant Singh Basnet

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